Guest Blog Post by Dr. Hassan Alraee – “My MRCEM OSCE Experience”

This is our second guest blog post from esteemed colleague Dr. Hassan Alraee – Emergency Medicine Registrar (Ireland). I take no credit for the following text.

Dear Colleagues,
I am sharing my MRCEM OSCE experience with you guys as I realized while preparing for the exam there was not much guidance available online. The aim of this post is to familiarize everyone with what the exam entails and a few tips which may be helpful in your preparation for the OSCE.
This may not be a structured or typical guidance post, it may come out as a random collection of thoughts but I will try my best to note down everything that was helpful to me during the preparation for the OSCE.
First of all to be eligible to appear in the exam you need to have passed the FRCEM Primary exam, passing the FRCEM Intermediate SAQ exam is NOT one of the eligibility criteria. However, in my experience passing the FRCEM Intermediate SAQ exam gives you a baseline in theoretical knowledge that is required for the OSCE. So it would be ideal to attempt the exams in the sequence that has been set, i.e. Primary, Intermediate and OSCE.
Before beginning your preparation for the exam have a look at the MRCEM Information Pack available on the RCEM website. A list of study material that may be helpful includes;
1. MCEM Part C: 125 OSCE Stations by Kiran Somani
2. Mastering Emergency Medicine: A Practical Guide by Mathew Hall
3. Bromley Webinars
4. At least 1 (if not more) of the following courses; The London Clinical Course, The Bromley Course or the Manchester Course.
The exam itself feels like a daunting task during the preparation phase as it is completely different to the previous parts and reading books alone is not the best way to get through it. My advice would be to stick to one of the above mentioned books and go through it once. The next step would be to create a practice group which should comprise of at least 3 members. This would mean all 3 of you would be able to rotate through different roles during the practice sessions, i.e. The candidate, The actor and The examiner. In my humble opinion this practice group is the key to being successful in the exam. The final step would be to book one of the above mentioned courses. In order to maximize the courses you need to be fully prepared for the exam by the time you attend the course and treat it as a Mock Examination.
Each of the courses has their own pros and cons but all of them are helpful in preparing you for the OSCE.
Each OSCE comprises of 18 stations, 2 of which are rest stations. The exam does not test your theoretical knowledge to a great extent, the stations in the OSCE are designed to test various skills. Like all OSCE exams there is a fair degree of play acting and exaggeration of your daily practices is required. By this I mean that the examiner will only mark you on the actions you perform during the exam, so make sure you show every step and tick most boxes in the examiner’s checklist.
The basic outline of the stations encountered within the OSCE are;
1) There are 2 to 3 history taking stations, remember to complete the station by giving the patient a management plan based on the history.
2) A Systemic examination station (CVS, Respiratory, Abdominal, Cranial Nerve or Peripheral Vascular examination)
3) A Joint examination station (Hip, Shoulder, Knee, Back, C-spine or a limb examination)
4) A Breaking Bad News scenario
5) There are 2 or 3 teaching stations which may include teaching a procedure or examination to a student or a junior doctor.
6) There is always a Conflict Resolution in the OSCE as well, which may be a missed fracture or pneumothorax or a difficult referral. This station also includes talking to a patient with Alcohol Dependence or Binge Drinking.
7) 2 scenarios within the OSCE are always Resuscitation Scenarios and test your skills in ACLS, APLS or ATLS. These stations seem like they are the most difficult ones while preparing for the exam, but in my opinion you can easily pass these if you make a good approach towards resus stations during your practice sessions. The Key to the resus scenarios is sticking to the ABCDE approach.
8) ENT and Eye station; in the exam they can check your knowledge on these in various ways it can be a simple otoscopic or ophthalmoscopic examination, teaching may be incorporated into it or history taking could be tested but there will always be a station that will involve ENT or Eye.
9) A quick assessment station; this one is a tricky one, it usually has the task of taking a short history, performing a focused examination and formulating a management plan based on your findings and summarizing it to the patient.
10) An Information Providing station; this station usually involves a relative of the patient to whom you have to explain a new diagnosis or management of a medical condition. Juvenile Diabetes Mellitus and Addision’s Disease are 2 examples that I can recall.
11) A Psychiatric Station is always present in the OSCE, you may be asked to performed a Mental state examination on a patient or assess suicide risk, they may add a conflict resolution component to this station as well.

In my opinion if you divide your preparation according to these 11 types of stations you will be able to cover most of the things required to be successful. Some additional topics that are tested in different ways and I haven’t categorized under the stations include; DVT, major incidents, seizures and driving advice. It would be wise to look up the NICE guidelines on these.
I would also suggest that you reach the city where the exam is being held one day earlier and have a look at your examination center that day. Just so you know how long it takes to get there and don’t have the extra stress of finding the center on the morning of the exam. Please spend your last 2 days traveling and relaxing, there is no point in trying to cram in stuff over the last 2-3 days as this is not a theoretical exam where they expect you to know everything.
On the exam day itself it is understandable to be anxious and stressed and believe me the examiners know that the candidates are under pressure and are not there to fail you. You should know that staying cool and calm is the most important feature that will enable you to be successful. It usually takes 1 or 2 stations to get into the groove of the exam as the 1st station comes up it is normal to feel a little nervous or blank out temporarily. Do not act bold and wing it if you are unsure about something, be safe at this stage and say you are unable to recall at this point in time and that you will consult the department policy or your consultant before implementing it.
Do not worry if any of your stations don’t go as well as you expected them to, leave the previous station behind you and move on to the next one. Do not let your performance on the previous station affect your performance on the next one. I know this is easier said than done but it has to be said as it is human nature to dwell on the past. You should also know that there is not a minimum number of stations that need to be passed to pass the exam, that was how it used to be in the past. The marking scheme has changed to a cumulative score now and a different passing mark is set for every OSCE day so even if you fail a station you carry forward marks from it towards your overall score. Therefore it is imperative that you score marks for the basic things on each station. Some of these include greeting the actor, washing hands before and after examination, wearing personal protective equipment (or at least mentioning it to the examiner), being warm and courteous and thanking the actor at the end. These simple things may be the difference between a pass and fail score in your OSCE.
I hope it was helpful for all those that are reading this post, good luck with your exam, with a bit of structure and practice I’m sure you will pass the OSCE.

Guest Blog Post by Dr. Bilal A. Jadoon: “Guidance about FRCEM Intermediate – SAQ”

This is a guest post by Dr. Bilal A. Jadoon – Emergency Medicine Trainee, Ireland (email:

Hi fellow,
This would be my first ever writing in the form of a blog and I hope it would be informative for all the ED fellows appearing in the FRCEM Intermediate SAQ exam. Before I move forward, you need to know the eligibility for this part of the exam, which you can see in detail on the RCEM website in detail but the least requirement is successful FRCEM primary exam and work experience in the Emergency department as you will need a supervisor to give approval for this exam.
​Before every exam, you need to know the content that is going to come up in the exam, which is available on the RCEM website with the name of blueprints (link given below). As you go through the curriculum you will notice that the exam not only test your knowledge about the diseases diagnosis and management but also tests your theory for the practical procedures and the various rotations (especially paediatrics and anaesthetics) stuff. It also incorporates the very less commonly read topics like infection control, medical ethics and medico-legal aspects etc too, which is the most difficult and extensive part of the exam. The paper is 60 SAQs with all questions atleast 2 parts and most will have 3 parts with marks written in front of each part/question. The available time is 3 hours and this exam is time critical.
​Most of the questions which come up are your routine ED patients presentation, however to cover up the course and get successful in exam, you would have to read/ listen to the following material.
1. MRCEM B revision notes by Victoria stacy
2. FRCEM intermediate SAQ paper book (recently available)
3. FRCEM Intermediate SAQ by Moussa Issa
4. Bromely webinars videos
5. Frcem exam prep online course/SAQs
6. NICE guidelines (relevant and latest ones)
I have no idea about the FRCEM intermediate SAQ books as, they were not available by the time I was appearing in the exam, but I would say they would be worth reading as one of them is the newer version of victoria stacy book.
As the course is extensive and difficult to cover ED calls, you will have to cover the major portions of the blueprints and give less time to parts like common competencies and anesthetics etc, because if you cover up the major portion of the course you will certainly pass the exam.
Preparing for exam is always different for everyone and my suggestion would be to start preparing atleast 3-6 months before the exam and do study on daily basis or otherwise whatever suits you.
Last 2-3 days before exam, just get relax and if you can revise well and good, if you can’t, don’t worry and don’t panic. You will always think that you have forgotten everything but in reality you remember most of the stuff. Reach the examination city 1 day before and have plenty of sleep 8-10hrs on the night before the exam.
During examination, timing is the most important and essential component, which is you didn’t manage properly, you will end up in a disaster for sure. Try not to spend more than 3 mins on each question. Write a single word to a single line answer at max. Those questions which are time demanding due to any reason, just skip them and mark them for later, if you get a chance to do them. You should aim for reach all 60 questions, even if you have to skip a few because they are time consuming as you will end up doing max questions and attain max question.
I hope this benefits all you and best of luck for those appearing in the exam.
Please do let me know about the short comings or any suggestions/corrections in this writing and that would help me write better stuff in the future.

FRCEM (Primary) – Done and dusted!

So I am happy to report that the results of the recent FRCEM (primary) exam were announced this evening – and I am proud (read ecstatic!) to share that I passed it! *takes a bow* (if you are interested in questions from the exam, read about that in a separate post here)

This is why I have been slightly out of the blogging scene for the past few weeks – prepping for the exam, juggling the ARCP for my first year of training and what has been very likely the hardest and longest and hottest summer stretch I have ever endured (and I am from Pakistan!) But I am back with the proverbial bang!

And I bring with it the novelty of experience.

It’s not a difficult exam per se – but it is an exam that requires commitment, and time and energy. Be ready to make that commitment. It’s a new exam, only started in Autumn 2016 I believe.

Back in the good old days when I was a (very) junior doctor back home in Pakistan, I had the luxury of having ‘many’ weeks off in lieu of exam prep – the job itself was intense but i had no other commitments; i.e training, portfolio, assessments, ARCP, etc. For this exam, I was working in your regular, run-of-the-mill A&E department in the UK, as a 1st year trainee. I decided to take the exam, decision was taken in January, I booked an online question database then, and I booked the exam in mid February, but I didn’t really get a good momentum going initially, and was still in 2 minds. Why? Because of the ARCP which is an assessment of all your competencies for a required year of training that you have managed to accumulate over the period of the past year, and a panel of judges basically sits and decides whether your performance (based on these signed competencies) is good enough to warrant your progression to the next stage/year of training. So this year was to be my first ever ARCP and coincidentally the exam fell on the exact same date as the ARCP, so in addition to the preparation of the exam, I had to focus on my assessments/requirements for ARCP – all to be juggled along side a full time job in the A&E as one of the juniors. It is doable folks.

So in bits and bobs I started my prep. I had that textbook of emergency medicine, but I must admit I never got beyond the first 5-7 pages of it! Doing the questions from the question bank is what helped me pass along with (as I said) youtube videos. I took a 4 month subscription for the FRCEM exam prep website – previously known as MCEM exam prep website. (‘tom-aye-to, tom-aah-to’). They have a good database of questions fortunately of the SBAQ type as well as the older true/false format. I have ready in many places that you could use any of the other websites/question banks as well.

On my days off, I aimed to do 50-100 question (see, I made you laugh there!) Who am I kidding, I barely got 30 done on a good day – these questions came with explanations, why this option is right, and why the others are wrong, along with a short description of the topic that the question deals with. I inevitably began making a habit of taking pictures of the explanations in my cellphone, and I went back to them again and again, for example before going to bed, or while waiting for my wife/son to wake up in the morning on my rare days off. I found this habit helpful, as you may not retain some of the information that you read, but if you go back and go through it again, or atleast if not all of it, then maybe just the major salient points, it is bound to stick to you.

On my days where I was working, I tried doing a few questions while at work, on my phone, between patient. That was a bad idea. Not only did I not have enough time to do even a single question justice – I also did not retain too much due to the lack of concentration in a busy A&E department. Ditched that idea fast. I did however vow not to waste any of the days I was working though, so after a busy shift, I used to come back, rest, recuperate or sleep (mostly slept) thanks to my wife who really upped her support game and banished me to a separate room in the house at all hours of day or night, waking or asleep – no diaper duty, no bath time no sleep time with the baby – just the books, fooding and my laptop. Where was I? Yes – days I was working, depending on what shift I had done, I still tried to get a good solid 3 plus hours of ‘mcqsing’ as I called it. On days that I was on morning shifts, I came home by 5 pm, straight to bed, slept for an hour and a half or 2 – woke up – tea/food/family time for an hour or 2 and then hitting the books (or laptop in this case) from 10 pm onwards up until 2-3 am – then 5+ hours of sleep and a repeat of this. Or on the afternoon shifts (2pm/4pm to 10 pm or midnight) similarly I used to come back home, freshen up, spend a minuscule amount of time with the family before they dropped off to sleep and then ‘mcqsed’ till the wee hours of morning, going to bed at 5 am or thereabouts, to wake up just in time for lunch and off to work. Night shifts were a bit more difficult, and I sort of gave up on trying to cram anything in my head during the 4-5 night stretch we have – the hangover like state I was in during the night shift stint was not really amenable for any further insult to the brain by forcing it to swallow any other bits of information/mcqs.

I also youtubed a lot of videos – specially anatomy ones, and one or two for physiology and microbiology. There are a lot of good ones out there. I focussed on upper and lower limb anatomy the most, along with the plexuses. You can just search for them under ‘anatomy, mcem or mrcem’.

My strategy towards the middle/end of my prep was to focus mostly on the maximum yield subjects – broadly anatomy and physiology which carried the most weightage in the actual exam, with 60 questions from each subject (out of a total of 180 questions!) Followed by significant input from microbiology/pharmacology/pathology. I used to do 3 sets of 20 questions in a row – the first set being anatomy, second physiology and the 3rd annoys the others, but I kept the first two sets the same, due to its weightage. Anatomy threw me, as it was basically learning a new something I had learnt almost 13-14 years back in the early medical school years! I think it was safe to say I had forgotten most of it, despite having a refresher course during my stint at the USMLE exams. But I digress. I found the following topics high yield, and got an inkling from my various forays into the question banks that these were important enough to be tested and warranted more attention (or repetitive attention) from my end.


– Upper limb (muscles -attachments and function, nerves, bones, blood vessels) -Lower limb (Same as above) – brachial plexus – abdominal wall layers – blood supply of the heart – borders of the heart – contents of spermatic cord/inguinal canal – Sacral plexus – Optic nerve lesions – cranial nerve basics – triangles of the neck – foramina of the skull and their contents – diaphragmatic openings – Facial nerve – spinal cord lesions based on presentation – stuff going on at T4 level – brain blood supply


Lung volumes – cardiac cycle – hormones (renin, angiotensin, mineralocorticoid, cortisol, adrenal medulla, pancreas, PTH, calcitonin, Vit D and its metabolytes) – renal physiology – 


Vaccination program – Drugs that induce/inhibit cytochrome p450 – broad microbiology – allergic/hypersensitivity reaction types – types/examples of vaccines – immunoglobulin types – 

I also attended a course arranged very kindly by our deanery for candidates interested in the FRCEM primary. It was purported to be a tough exam, as the previous attempt had had a passing percentage of 43 percent. Yes, only 43 % of the candidates who appeared for the previous attempt passed. We gulped down our fears, and while the course gave us a broad idea of what wee needed to be doing (which was a lot!) it served no greater purpose than to tell us that we were not alone in being scared and that everyone seemed to be equally stumped by their performance in the questions – slightly reassured by the fact that during practise mcq sessions, when the consultants tried to solve the questions they were mostly unable to. Slightly reassuring, and mostly horrifying, as how were we supposed to pass the exam?! Yikes. What threw most people was that the exam format had been changed – from the previous true or false format, to the  Single Best Answer Question or SBAQ format. All options in a given question may be correct in different ways, but select the answer which is most appropriate according to the stem. Which basically translates to “guess what the examiner was thinking when he/she made this question” – so no pressure!

By the last few weeks, I was about to pull my hair out – the amount of mcps I was doing wasn’t too much, and I didn’t seem to be ding all that well if you calculated the number of questions I was getting right – overall a 52-55 percent of correct answers. Abysmal. I did not let that disappoint me, however, knowing full well that practicing questions was the way to go in such an exam format.

I used up all of my 2 weeks of annual leave and 3 out of 5 days of study leave for this exam, which brought me to just about 20 days of uninterrupted preparation (coupled with MANY visits to the department for ARCP related issues). That I feel was the single best thing in way of preparation – the time off was focussed, and I wasn’t tired from running around – preparation is mentally exhausting as it is, coupled with the physical exhaustion of day-to-day ED life – it takes a toll. All I did was sleep, eat and study. Lather, rinse, repeat.

But I will reiterate here what I have said before as well – you can never do enough questions as practise – just keep doing as much as you can, every waking minute make sure you are doing questions. Whether its 5 or 50 questions, make sure you stay consistent and do not get laid-back and forget to do questions – keep doing them, whether right or wrong, as long as you are also focusing on the explanations of those questions, its a learning experience.

Advice about the exam itself: Time management – 180 questions, 3 hours. The way I did it was divided it into 3 parts, so I needed to have completed 60 questions in 1 hour, and preferably even faster than that, since I needed to allow some time at the end to go back and tackle the more difficult or confusing questions. Keep track of time as well – if you seem to initially be on track, keep checking the clock every 10-15 minutes and make sure you are on track. If you feel you need to think more than 20 seconds for an answer and are still unable to do so, then mark the question and move on, return to it later. Do not waste minutes on a single question, causing a delay and jeapardising multiple other questions. Read the stem carefully – often we do not read the ‘except’ ‘all’ which’ ‘most appropriate’ next step’ gold standard’ ‘not included’ bits of the stem and inadvertently end up selecting the wrong option. In case of long stems, read the last bit/question and the skim over the rest of the stem, to gauge what they are looking for. If you don’t know the answer, go through the options by the process of elimination. Eliminate the blatantly wrong options. Think about the rest, if possible eliminate another 1 or 2 till you are left with one. If you read the stem and know the answer, look for that in the options, if you see it, select that. Always attempt all questions, no use leaving a question blank and lose an opportunity of a lucky guess. Feel free to draw, make flowcharts, write things down in the margins of the question paper if it helps you remember, calculate, reach a conclusion (I remember I drew the whole optic nerve/tract/radiation diagram to help me diagnose where a lesion was based on the hemianopia referred to in the question paper!) The questions may be easier than your practise question bank – don’t worry!

And I had the support of good friends. I don’t know, there is something about prepping for an exam (or anything in life for that matter!) and knowing that there is someone else going through the exact same thing as I am – it creates an interestingly unique bond. I had 2 such colleagues and friends, and I am pleased (and incredibly proud) that they have passed as well. We used to work together in the same ED department back home in Pakistan, and are now in different parts of the UK pursuing careers in emergency medicine. Onwards and upwards!

FRCEM (primary) – recall questions

So these are the recall questions from my attempt at this exam – June 2017 (happy to report that I passed the exam – if you are interested in my experience with the exam, do read about it here Good luck!)

  • achilles tendon rupture – ciprofloxacin
  • msuculocutaneaous nerve – stab wound to axilla, causing weakness of elbow flexion and supination
  • platysma – stab wound to anterior triangle of neck – which muscle would be injured (choices were sternocleidomastoid, scalenous anterior, trapezius, platysma and one other)
  • head injury with fractured internal acoustic meatus, which TWO nerves would be affected – facial and glossopharyngeal
  • female with mass on anterior 2/3rds of tongue, where is lymph drainage? i chose submental because tip of tongue drains there but rest of anterior tongue drains to submandibular, so I am not sure, both were in the options
  • ankle movement loss – ? location of lesion
  • lower lip numbness, nerve involved? inferior alveolar
  • scenario of impetigo in child, what factor causes its spread? fecal- oral, droplet, intact skin, broken skin – i chose broken skin.
  • swollen painful knee joint youngish male (35 or so?) no other history, what would you find on gram stain? gram positive pairs of cocci in clusters, or gram positive cocci in chains, or gram negative rods or gram positive rods or gram negative intracellular organisms arranged like kidney beans (correct answer – gonococcal arthritis)
  • small wound on ankle, swollen acutely inflamed next day – what is the most abundant cell type present? neutrophils
  • neck of fibula fracture – common perennial nerve injury
  • valgus deformity of knee joint following football injury i think, ?ligament damaged – medial collateral
  • hyperextension of knee joint – horse-riding incident, unable to weight bear swollen painful knee etc, injury to? – anterior cruciate
  • scenario of pancytopenia ? causative drug? – choices included celecoxib and mefenamic acid – i chose celecoxib
  • lip/peri-oral swelling not improving with adrenaline, which drug implicated mainly as cause? – ramipril (don’t remember specifically – one of the ‘prils’)
  • anaphylaxis, adrenaline dose? 1:1000
  • optic tract lesion, right or left – scenario depicting right homonymous hemianopia
  • headache, increased intracranial pressure symptoms, bitemporal hemianopia ? lesion site – optic chiasm
  • mass in optic chiasm, symptomatic, hyperglycemia, likely hormone excess? growth hormone
  • hemorrhage, life threatening, what will be the effect on kidneys? – decrease urine production
  • scenario of heart failure, furosemide given, site of action? – loop of henle
  • someone in type 2 resp failure, how will body realise it needs to increase breathing rate? – chemoreceptors
  • picture of a weird target lesion like rash on hand of young male, said to have been acute in onset over last two days started on limbs now involving trunk etc ? cause – options were HIV, Herpes simplex, staph aureus (my answer because I thought it was scalded skin syndrome and nothing else really fit)
  • newborn with eye discharge, mum under treatment for chlamydia, what is newborn at risk of? pneumonia, encephalitis, corneal ulcer, meningitis, and one other option – i chose corneal ulcer
  • 3 month old, diagnosed pertussis, most horrible complication? – apneic spells
  • alcoholic male, cough, bloody sputum, fevers, consolidation on xray, microorganism? – klebsiella
  • alcoholic, male, ascites, cause? – portal hypertension
  • ascitis in female, lung function tests, which would be increased? FEV1/FVC
  • stab 5 cm above iliac crest left lateral abdomen – deepest structure before peritoneum? – transversus abdominis
  • loud s1? cause – opening of pulmonary valve, closing of aortic valve, vibration, opening of mitral valve, closure of tricuspid valve
  • cholera scenario, profuse watery diarrhoea, mechanism of action? – chloride ions leakage?
  • scenario of steattorhea – defect in exocrine pancreas
  • 35 yo woman with fatigue, icteric sclera, unconjugated bilirubin – hepatitis
  • acute infection with hepatitis B – raised ALT
  • terminal ilium resection, absorption of which will be affected – vitamin c, zinc, proteins, carbohydrates, vitamin d
  • cause of prolonged PR interval
  • cause of prolonged QT interval – clindamycin? (scenario of patient recently using antibiotic for skin infection, ECG shows QT prolongation
  • digoxin toxocity, when to give digiband? – prolonged seizures, severe bradyarhythmia
  • hyperkalemia, ECG changes just before cardiac arrest?
  • ECG shown, which vessel involved based on ECG changes?
  • Angiography of chest pain patient, occlusion of left circumflex branch, which cardiac area affected
  • megacolon found in 7 day old infant, passed meconium at 3 days of both and no bowel movements since then, which system affected? – myenteric plexus
  • gout scenario – negatively bifringent crystals on aspirate
  • glucagon secreted from- alpha cells
  • young patient with DKA – which pancreatic islet cell dysfunction? BETA
  • glucagon site of action for gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis?   liver
  • factors that increase gastric emptying – cholecystokinin, histamine, secretin, duodenal distension, astral distension
  • shingles rash scenario, seen in ED, what would you do to confirm before beginning treatment? – history and clinical judgement
  • scenario of herpes zoster ophthalmicus, which nerve involved? – trigeminal
  • orbital blowout fracture, diplopia on upward gaze. which is entrapped? superior oblique, inferior oblique, inferior rectus, superior rectus, medial rectus
  • orbital blowout fracture – inferior orbital fissure fracture, which will be damaged?
  • something about starling’s law
  • oculomotor nerve – consensual light reflex scenario where light shined in right eye, reflex present, light moved to left eye but right pupil dilates, lesion?
  • precipitant of gout in a patient’s drug regimen? – hydrocholothiazide
  • gout treatment, scenario given elderly, heart failure, diabetes, acute gout treatment? – colchicine, allopurinol, diclofenac, etc etc
  • rationale for steroid use in asthma- reduce bronchial inflammation(duh?)
  • adenosine contraindication (scenario of SVT) – recent severe exacerbation of asthma
  • scenario or warafrinized patient with head injury? reversal with? – FFP
  • patient with von willibrand disease scenario – what is the dysfunction? – platelet aggregation
  • patient fully uptodate with tetanus injections according to UK protocol, presents to ED with very dirty soiled open wound with open fracture of tibia fibula, treatment options? no tetanus treatment, tetanus immunoglobulin only, tetanus immunoglobulin and vaccine now, tetanus immunoglobulin and vaccine now and 1 month later, tetanus vaccine only
  • 8 month old child, fully updated with jabs for age. what has he still not received yet? men a, men b, hiB, rotavirus, mumps
  • patient has been bitten by someone who is hep b positive, she herself has never received vaccination for it, management plan? immunoglobulin now, immunoglobulin plus vaccine course over three months, immunoglobulin plus vaccine course over 6 months
  • child with proven meningitis being intubated in ED, who needs prophylaxis (post-exposure) clinician intubating, nursing staff in ED, children at party with child, classmates and teachers in school
  • boy with hemophilia scenario, deficiency? – factor 8
  • digoxin toxicity, worsens – hypokalemia
  • succinylcholine mechanism of action – depolarizing neuromuscular blockage
  • propofol, mechanism of action – GABA receptors
  • cause of warfarin to be potentiated – clarithromycin?
  • cause of pregnancy despite oral contraceptive pills – carbamezepine
  • ectopic pregnancy scenario, site of likely pregnancy? – ampulla of fallopian tube
  • direct inguinal hernia, defect? –
  • middle aged male, struck in anterior abdomen with steel girder, fast scan shows intra-abdominal fluid, which organ would be injured? – spleen injury (other options were kidney, pancreas, colon, aorta, none likely to be injured than spleen)
  • woman presents with right shoulder weakness, difficulty in raising it above her head and also shoulder contour different – which nerve implicated? accessory (deltoid)
  • scenario of elderly male involuntary tremors in one hand, gait changes, rigidity in muscles, expression changes, where is the lesion? substantia nigra
  • lithium toxicity – ataxic gait
  • scenario of TB, how to diagnose? – options were CT chest, sputum culture, monteux test,
  • tapeworm infection, how to diagnose? IgE levels raised, eggs in stools
  • diarrheal illness, ascending paralysis scenario, organism implicated? – campylobacter jejuni
  • pre oxygenation for intubation, which lung volume needs to be replaced with o2?
  • proton pump inhibitor acts on- parietal cell
  • MAP calculation formula
  • duodenal/gastric ulcer – likely cause? Gastrin
  • 48, male, perforation, pneumoperitoneum on CT, likely organ to be perforated? – duodenum, sigmoid colon, transverse colon, ascending colon, oesophagus
  • elderly patient, abdominal pain, high lactate, very unwell, scenario of ischemic bowel. CT shows ascending colon affected, what blood supply?-  right colic artery
  • DKA treatment commenced, what will be low as a consequence – potassium
  • dka scenario, what causes drowsiness – sodium
  • in patient with addison’s disease, scenario and lab results given what specifically is deficient? – mineralocorticoid
  • osmolality, major contributor? – sodium
  • froments sign
  • scenario of tachycardia at 135/min, weight loss, diarrhoea, in a patient with grave’s disease, what will be lab finding supportive of it? increased T3
  • hyponatremia, hyperkalemia – hypoadrenalism
  • scenario of ADH secretion, location? posterior pituitary
  • FAST scan in patient RTA, hypovolemic shock, where will fluid likely be seen when supine? – paracolic gutter? para-aortic gutter? between liver and diaphragm, between liver and right kidney, between spleen and left kidney
  • blood volume? 5 litres
  • scenario of scalp laceration, what will cause clotting – conversion of prothrombin to thrombin, conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin, activation of external clotting cascade
  • pulmonary surfactant function – increase surface tension
  • pulmonary surfactant produced by? – pneumocytes
  • picture of winged scapula, which muscle likely to be affected? – serratus anterior
  • winged chapel scenario in hiker, which nerve is damaged? long thoracic nerve
  • recurrent pneumonias in chronic smoker, what is the factor causing him to have recurrent pneumonias? – decreased mucociliary clearance
  • hilar lymphadenophathy on CXR? bronchopulmonary? paratracheal? tracheobronchial? superior thoracic? pulmonary?
  • dentures stuck in trachea at T4/5 level, what causes the constriction? – arch of aorta
  • plumber/painter, right elbow lateral condyle tenderness/painful movements of elbow, what movement will be affected? wrist extension
  • swollen tender knee joint, known recurrent joint problems elderly female, what blood test will be raised? – rheumatoid factor
  • contact dermatitis scenario? – type 3 hypersensitivity reaction?
  • anaphylaxis, which immunoglobulin? – IgM
  • trancutaneous pacing, skeletal muscle contractions of anterior chest wall ? cause – voltage gated sodium channels opening
  • slip and fall on outstretched hand, wrist pain, lunate dislocation, also c/o severe pain in hand, what is likely to have been injured? – distal radius, radial artery, ulnar nerve, scapholunate dissociation, radial nerve
  • fall on outstretched hand, elbow injury, posterior dislocation of bow, what is likely fractured? – capetellum, trochlear part, olecranon, radio head, supracondylar region
  • volar wrist aspect injury, laceration, possible injury to structures above flexor retinaculum, what will be injured?
  • slip and fall landed on back/hip, painful movement of hip adduction but hip flexion is normal, what muscle is injured
  • 14 year old fell from horse, numbness and tingling to medial 2 fingers and ulnar border of hand ? lesion where?
  • patient with spinal cord injury, central cord suspected syndrome suspected, clinical signs to be expected? – proximal musculopathy? upper limb muscles affected worse than lower limb muscles,
  • unable to move below waist, wrist elbow  and  shoulder movements intact, unable to flex fingers or grip anything, lesion?
  • football injury young male – snapping noise when hip joint moved, avulsion of anterior superior iliac spine ? muscle involved – sartorius
  • fracture base of little finger metacarpal, which muscle injured?
  • anterior aspect of thigh numbness – lateral cutaneous nerve of thigh
  • fifth metatarsal base fractured – muscle?
  • fibular neck fracture, which muscles is injured?
  • stabbed through adductor canal, injury to what structure? saphenous nerve, femoral nerve, obturator nerve
  • patient is stabbed in abdomen, diaphragmatic injury at region where oesophagus enters the diaphragm, what other structure would be injured? vagus, azygos, thoracic duct, aorta, vena cava
  • neck surgery on thyroid, which nerve is damaged? recurrent laryngeal nerve
  • there was a graph shown – this question I most likely got wrong – and I don’t even remember the stem – they asked us to label what we thought was on the x- and y- axes! I had no clue!
  • some scenario of a patient requiring a test for a disease – and then they went on to ask, in order for the patient to be discharged safely, what factor of the test was most significant in deciding whether or not it was safe for him to go home : sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, positive predictive value, or odds
  • patient with stroke symptoms,weakness, sensory loss and poor coordination – which vessel likely to be blocked? anterior cerebral, middle cerebral, posterior cerebellar,anterior communicating posterior communicating
  • facial nerve exits through which foramen
  • trochlear nerve exits through which foramen
  • insulin causes glucose to be transported into the cells, mechanism? active transport, passive transport, facilitated diffusion, osmosis, cotransport
  • mechanism of ketoacidosis in young girl with DM type 1
  • drug causing extrapyramidal side effects
  • child has taken grandmother’s medications, based on symptoms what medication has he taken?
  • effects of which drug causes patient to be dry, warm, psychotic
  • post splenectomy which organisms will cause problems – encapsulated bacteria (do not remember was probably strep pneuma or meningococcus)
  • patient with peptic ulcer – whats the mechanism? decreased prostaglandins, increased arachidonic acid metabolites,
  • patient with pulmonary embolism, which lung volume/space will be affected
  • discussion of an x-ray 1-2 weeks post fracture with fracture line surrounded by hazy area ? cause bone formation, calcium deposition, refractor, failed hearing, malunion
  • patient recently back from swimming, ear canal painful discharge etc what caused it? swelling of wax in ear canal
  • innate immunity
  • ascending paralysis with diarrhoeal illness, organism? campylobacter jejuni