Anesthetics introduction – teaching day

(very rough edit of the knowledge gained from this teaching day – will edit by tonight.)

Introduction given by first speaker – (I missed out the first 10-15 minutes of it, maybe longer, was searching for parking) Gave a few pearls of wisdom, in particular, the Royal College of Anesthetics e-learning website link

2nd speaker – Difficult Airway
objective is to oxygenate – help with ventilation
can be by mask, tube through nose or through mouth, or through trachea
airway assessment — HISTORY -check for pathology – burns etc, identify previous anaesthetic history, charts etc, visualisation of laryngoscope views – grades
clear is grade 1, partial block is grade 2 (take home message was that 1+2 easier) EXAMINATION – multiple airway assessment tests – none accurate enough – 5 things most important to be done – 1)-how likely to face mask ventilate, tight seal etc, facial trauma, elderly, dentures, sunken face, high BMI, snorers/sleep apnea – /2)-mouth opening – 3 cm magic number, estimation usually, LMA/laryngoscope fit, foreign objects, tumors, masses – 3) – neck movement ‘sniffing morning air position ‘ flex neck, extend head trying to align the axes for optimum visualisation, 4)-malampatti score (4 classes – first gen reassuring. upright,mouth maximum open and tongue protrusion max, visualise tongue, posterior, uvula, tonsillar pillars
DAS difficult intubation guidelines – 4 plans need to be aware of
(5)-cricothyroidotomy explained theoretical but not practically ever used – worth knowing in case ever required – explained cartilages etc and neck surface anatomy – I noticed everyone palpated their neck involuntarily, including me!)
priority is ventilation not intubation – whichever way that may be achieved

3rd speaker – PRE-ASSESSMENT
HISTORY (what surgery, elective/emergency, major/minor, PMH, systemic review, medications, allergies, anticoagulants, any prior problems with anetshetics/personal or familial – any surgery to same site, starvation time, risk of reflux, dentition, how they have been in last few weeks, assessment of fitness (climb upstairs) , less than 4 mins exercise tolerance is not good for anaesthesia/ EXAMINATION (gpe, murmurs, chest, vascular access, airway, the back, high BMI, positioning)/INVESTIGATIONS (confirm, assess or alter risk – depends on patient)/MAKE A PLAN (think about conditions cvs -heart failure,aortic, mitral stenosis, ACS/MI within 3 months; fracture NOF)
Preassessment is your own personal way to do things, no perfect way: “there are many ways to skin a cat” (!!!)
patients risk of undergoing surgery/undergoing anaesthesia (?high risk patient, ?high risk surgery, ? high risk anaesthetic) for each problem identified, has it been optimised as much as possible, or how can the risk be reduced/optimized, and do you need to change your plan.
PLANNING
– pre-operative – optimisation any more investigations, treatments, fluids/inhalers etc, ask for help if needed.
intra-operative – technique, induction, maintenance, wakeup
post op

CONSENTING THE PATIENT – Royal college website (anesthetics rcoa pils) details consent information for any medical condition/procedure
complications – sore throat, dental damage, cuts to lips etc, pain, nausea, anaphylaxis, death, loss of airway, awareness and regional complications – low bp, particularly with obstetrics, itching, urinary retention, headache, failure of procedure, infection, bleeding, nerve damage (1/50000 spinal, 1/13000 epidural)

4th speaker(s) – scenario enacted by actual anaesthetic consultants and fellows from the department – to give an idea about how things go in theaters. walking though an actual scenario – from introduction, consent, explanation of steps to patient, end tidal co2, patient under, putting tube in under vision – grade 1 view – inflating cough, good chest rise – end tidal trace, fix tube. looking at the monitor —–smooth induction

5th speaker – anaesthetic drugs
induction agents – 1)propofol -lipophillic, stings a bit, onset 20-30 seconds, 2-3mg/kg generally 300mg given, bradycardia, propofol infusion syndrome 2)thiopental -4-5mg/kg onset 10-20 seconds, tachycardia
muscle relaxants – neuromuscuar blocking agents – depolarising (suxamethonium, succinylcholine) and non depolarising (atracurium, rocuronium, pancuronium, vecuronium)
inhalation – no2 (not very common), sevoflurane, isoflurane, desflurane
reversal – anticholinesterases (neostigmine usually, sugamamadex – newer drug)
other drugs
MAC – minimum alveolar concentration of anaesthetic agent which is required to prevent movement in 50 percent of patients.

6th speaker – anaesthetic equipment

LMA – must have absent airway reflexes, cuff deflated, muscle relaxant not required – but is not a definite airway (vomit, aspirate)
i-gel – preferable
ETT – SIZE – 8 FOR MEN, 7 FOR WOMEN, AGE/4 +4 PAEDS – definitive airway
uncuffed for smaller children; RAE tube – out of the way of head neck surgeries.
bougies – angle tipped rubber tube, aid intubation
laryngoscopes (under direct visualisation)- mac (size 3 adult, size 4 for large adults), mccoy (lever to lift epiglottis), miller (paeds)
indirect laryngoscopy -in cases where visualisation is not optimum. e.g. airtraq, mcgrath (video laryngoscope)

breathing circuits –
APL VALVE
Bain circuit – most commonly used
BMV – AMBU BAG
WATERS CIRCUIT

Anesthetic machines
PENLON NUFFIELD 200
draeger primus – main anaesthetic machine
explained the charts etc – lots f abbreviations lots of number, lost of values and waveforms and colours – confusing but will become second nature to us! reassuring? not really!

7th speaker – chat with an ODP who tells us about his experience and his duties and what is required of them and of us – they check the instruments, the machines prepare trolleys, the tubes, the drugs etc for each interaction – make sure everything is clean or new or usable, batteries etc, lights of the laryngoscopes etc, and going through the checklist, who’s checklist – (something that he asks the whole room if they know about and they all say yes, but I have never heard of. yikes.) they also offer suggestions, ideas, but the final responsibility of what is happening is the anaesthetists. they won’t draw the medication, they won’t give meds (unless emergency situation) here to help you, work with you and make sure your training opportunities are met and are fulfilling – someone asked what pisses you off – lots of laughter – nervous, me thinks?

8th speaker was just the first speaker again – qualified the previous talk with “know your ODP, they will be your best friend”

BREAK FOR LUNCH (not provided *frown*)

Coming back in from lunch to another scenario that started off as a smooth induction but then went on to become a critical incident (penicillin administered to a patient with no known allergies – while undergoing surgery) – some hilariousness ensued as the “surgeon” put her hands up when the patient became critical and watched as the “anesthetist” dealt with it all, even exclaiming “oh is that what is done?” when the anesthetist administered epinephrine as part of the anaphylaxis treatment. *titters of laughter*

9th speaker – vasopressors/pharmacology
background – vasoconstriction, inotropic effect, sympathomimetic – alpha 1 blood vessels, beta 1 in lungs, beta 2 are in lungs, blood vessels
indications – hypotension due to whatever reason – treat if >30mm hg drop from baseline systolic BP or MAP <60, or any evidence of hypo perfusion/end organ damage – always fluid resuscitate before chronotropy.
most commonly used agents – ephedrine (synthetic sympathomimetic), metaraminol (mainly alpha effect, can be given peripherally, reflex bradycardia) and noradrenaline (usually for very sick patients in profound circulatory failure, both alpha/beta actions, needs to be given via central lines)
others – adrenaline (all adrenergic receptors, asystole, anaphylaxis), dobutamine (beta 1 agonist – cardiac effect, should be given through central line), dopamine (central neurotransmitter)
Points to consider -access : peripheral vs central ? arterial line if needed, boluses, side effects, tachyphylaxis (with long term treatment, receptors become desensitised), arrhythmias

another qualification from speaker 1 who I feel might be the head of the department or atleast leading this day. “These drugs are your best friend!”

10th speaker – one of our peers from an ACCS program currently rotating in aesthetics/itu somewhere : hemodynamic monitoring
NIBP, HR, pulses, mental status, etc do the basics
Invasive – ARTERIAL LINES (continuous BP monitoring, trends etc with drug administration, ABGs, posy-major surgery) commonly put in the radial artery (always do the allens test) discussion of types of art lines followed by a discussion of how to put up and put in an art line (OFF TO PATIENT OPEN TO AIR), complications (air emboli), can stay in for a week; CENTRAL LINES (cvp measurements, medications that can’t be given in peripheral lines), goes in a big vessel, should all be usg guided, patient positioning important, aseptic non touch technique, explanation of the technique (excellent explanation and demonstration, including usg) followed by blood gas, transduction image and a car – also discussed complications, how to measure cvp (normal cvp 0-8) – web links provided – frca
session in the middle about us being able to handle the instruments and ask questions

11th speaker – introduced himself as the last speaker of the day (thankfully!) with 9 slides to his presentation and the first slide was his name and he reported the last slide is thank you and any questions.
analgesia – definition – unpleasant sensation associated with emotional connotation related to tissue damage
types/managements/etc etc This part was particularly vague for me as I was just checking the clock by this time, looking forward to the long drive home.

Blogger Recognition Award

I know this post is fairly late in the day – but better late than never, right? Now this isn’t a formal or official award, but it is a mark of recognition bestowed by our peers, recognising our writing/blog work as something that is worth the time and effort that’s been put into it, and for whatever reason was deemed worthy of a more detailed look rather than a cursory glance over the shoulder. I am ever so grateful to the surprisingly humble Kershelle Mike @ The Angry Marketer Blog for deeming the MDB worthy of that second look – so honoured and surprised (read flabbergasted!) at the nomination!

Now the way this works is that:

Step 1: you give an account of how your blog came into being – and;

Step 2: any advice you want to dole out to new and upcoming and ‘thinking-about-it’ bloggers – and mine is this: be yourself, don’t force yourself, don’t try too hard – discover your strength and play to them, be unique and then be regular, don’t worry about how many people are reading your stuff – if you feel you have the right idea then this will take commitment and time invested! Do think about this long and hard, don’t just jump into it – look at other blogs, look up others’ ideas and see how they implemented their ideas – and find out what works for you, and then, finally;

Step 3: you nominate 15 (or upto 15) other blogs/bloggers that you feel deserve to be recognized. It isn’t an official platform, but it sure is nice to be recognised, don’t you think? So without further ado (and in no particular order) my nominations for the Blogger Recognition Award are:

  • My class fellow, friend and colleague, Dr. Haseeb Ashraf’s blog Medical Solutions: The Medic Helpline (link here)  – which aims at creating awareness about various medical conditions, easing definitions for laypersons/non medical personnel and any guidance/medical queries you may have as a doctor or other medical professional, or even indeed any member of the general public
  • Another friend and superstar colleague Anita Mitra – and all round amazing person – she is an encyclopedia on all things ‘women’s health’ – including some topics oft considered taboo – her blog as The Gynae Geek is maybe even more impressive than the legend herself!
  • One of my juniors in medical school is doing something that I am secretly (OK maybe not so secretly!) proud of and who I think has the capacity to touch so many lives for the better – and not just by means of her medical degree! – she does this by reviewing (after reading) the most amazing books as The Doctor Reads – she writes succinct and amazingly relevant reviews that connect you to the books in a way no review or book recommendation has ever done before – atleast not to my knowledge. Absolutely love her style, and the sense of humour just takes it up another notch. She does not have an official blog, but check out her work here, and here – she takes Instagramming to a whole new level!
  • FifisLounge – An amazing cook, who tries and tests recipes herself all the time, and then recommends the successes to anyone looking for yummy morsels and tasty treats – having tried this chef’s cooking firsthand, I can vouch for this blog with confidence! Check out this blog here, and try out the great tastes!
  • A newcomer to the blogging scene – nevertheless ‘Life as Sid Knows it…’ is someone to follow – day to day musings, and personal experiences and an interesting take on the daily routine things that we take for granted – this blog is also a part of my list.

    Unfortunately I don’t have an extensive list of 15 blogs to recommend – but at least the ones I have recommended I honestly believe are worthy of your attention, whether you are a follower of the MDB or just randomly looking for inspiration. Do check them all out!

Hello world!

Greetings! New blogger in da house, what?!

Three days. That’s when I had this sudden bright idea (read ‘overheard my wife and sister-in-law talking about the benefits of blogging’) of starting my very own blog. I do, after all, have some interesting stories to tell.

I am a doctor by profession, and my chosen poison or…errr…specialty is emergency medicine. Yes, all the stories you have heard are true. We not only deal with the mundane cardiac events and road traffic accidents and strokes, but we also deal with the very interesting (and not so mundane!) foreign bodies in weird places that you ‘accidentally fell on to while climbing a ladder in the middle of the night naked and that’s how it ended up in my bum’. Very classy, and we totally fall for it. Not.

I also have an almost-2 year old, and the combination of sleepless nights due to daddy duty, and that of my lesser evil but equally exhausting shift work that I do, leads to quite a collection of interesting … incidents, shall we say? Some of them I would not breathe a word to anyone, and others, well let’s face it, they do make for great dinner party conversation.

So here I am, sharing my wisdom (or lack thereof). These are my stories, memories, anecdotes, reflections and thoughts – the inner rantings of a 30-something budding (balding?) doctor, trying to be an emergency physician, while also trying to dad.